This paper introduces a phenomenological model for the fuel distribution, combustion, and emissions formation in the small bore, high speed direct injection diesel engine. A differentiation is made between the conditions in large bore and small bore diesel engines, particularly regarding the fuel impingement on the walls and the swirl and squish gas flow components. The model considers the fuel injected prior to the development of the flame, fuel injected in the flame, fuel deposited on the walls and the last part of the fuel delivered at the end of the injection process. The model is based on experimental results obtained in a single-cylinder, 4-valve, direct-injection, four-stroke-cycle, water-cooled, diesel engine equipped with a common rail fuel injection system. The engine is supercharged with heated shop air, and the exhaust back pressure is adjusted to simulate actual turbo-charged diesel engine conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. Correlations and 2-D maps are developed to show the effect of combinations of the above parameters on engine out emissions. Emphasis is made on the nitric oxide and soot measured in Bosch Smoke Units (BSU).

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