A heater designed to monitor surface temperature fluctuations during pool boiling and spray cooling experiments while the bubbles are simultaneously being observed has been fabricated and tested. The heat source was a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) layer commercially deposited on a fused quartz substrate. Four copper-nickel thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) on the heater surface measured the surface temperature, while a thin layer of sapphire or synthetic fused silica provided electrical insulation between the TFTCs and the ITO. The TFTCs were micro-fabricated using the liftoff process to deposit the nickel and copper metal films. The TFTC elements were 50 μm wide and overlapped to form a 25 μm by 25 μm junction. TFTC voltages were recorded by a DAQ at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. A high-speed CCD camera recorded bubble images from below the heater at 2000 frames/second. From these images, the bubble outer diameter and contact ring diameter were clearly visible. A trigger sent to the camera by the DAQ program synchronized the bubble images and the surface temperature data. As the bubbles and their contact rings grew over the TFTC junction, correlations between bubble behavior and surface temperature changes were made. The 1–2°C temperature drops occurred as the contact ring moved over the TFTC junction during bubble growth and as the contact ring moved back over the TFTC junction during bubble departure.

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