Simulation of the complex flow inside a sharp U-bend needs both refined turbulence models and higher order numerical discretization schemes. In the present study, a nonlinear low-Reynolds number (low-Re) kω model including the cubic terms was employed to predict the turbulent flow through a square cross-sectioned U-bend with a sharp curvature, Rc/D = 0.65. In the turbulence model employed for the present study, the cubic terms are incorporated to represent the effect of extra strain-rates such as streamline curvature and three-dimensionality on both turbulence normal and shear stresses. In order to accurately predict such complex flowfields, a higher-order bounded interpolation scheme (Song, et al., 1999) has been used to discretize all the transport equations. The calculated results by using both the non-linear kω model and the linear low-Reynolds number kε model (Launder and Sharma, 1974) have been compared with experimental data. It is shown that the present model produces satisfactory predictions of the flow development inside the sharp U-bend and well captures the characteristics of the turbulence anisotropy within the duct core region and wall sub-layer.

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