High temperature fuel cells have demonstrated potential for a wide array of energy applications while meeting future efficiency and emission targets. Earlier works captured either steady state performance of stacks or transient behavior of single cells. This work develops a model that can simulate and spatially resolve transient temperature, pressure and species distributions for a simulated fuel cell stack in a computationally efficient manner. The novel model accounts for internal manifolding of fuel and oxidant streams and predicts two dimensional fields associated with the dynamic operation of a single high temperature fuel cell. The MatLab-Simulink® model calculates dynamic performance for both solid oxide and molten carbonate fuel cells that utilize both direct and indirect internal reforming. This paper presents dynamic response characteristics to perturbations in power, fuel utilization and composition, and investigates control strategies that minimize PEN temperature variations and fluctuations during the transient responses. Air flow and inlet temperature controls are sufficient to control average PEN temperature, but internal heat transfer dynamics substantially change the spatial temperature distribution dynamics at different operational power densities.

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