Free jets have been studied in detail over much of the last century, but the theory for offset and attached jets remains incomplete. Attached jets differ from free jets in that they lose momentum to nearby surfaces, attenuating their velocities. The velocity profiles of free circular jets are nearly Gaussian, with quantitative mathematical descriptions derived from first principles by Goertler and Tollmien (Rajaratnam, 1976). In contrast, mathematical descriptions of three-dimensional attached jets from circular nozzles remain much less mature. Agelin-Chaab and Tachie (2011) used particle imaging velocimetry of a three-dimensional attached jet to show that the scaled velocity decays with scaled distance from the nozzle with a power law exponent between −1.15 and −1.20, which is larger in magnitude than that of a free jet. However, quantitative analytical expressions for the velocity profiles of attached jets similar to those of free jets remain elusive. This paper addresses this critical gap.
Here we evaluate the velocity profiles of three-dimensional offset jets emerging from circular nozzles that become attached jets. These jets lose momentum due to interactions with nearby surfaces and are important to evaluating flows in mixing vessels and to suspending solids and trapped gases in radioactive waste tanks. Despite the importance of attached jets, prior insight has been purely experimental, limited to overly simplistic analytical models, or restricted to computationally expensive computational fluid dynamics case studies. We compare the expression of Verhoff (1963) to experimental results to find reasonable quantitative agreement.
As stated by Agelin-Chaab and Tachie (2011), “detailed velocity measurements of 3D offset jets are rare.” Such remains the case. This study adds to the literature by providing information at two additional Reynolds numbers (1.43 · 106 and 1.87 · 106) and evaluating simple but accurate expressions for velocity profiles. These Reynolds numbers and corresponding velocities are higher, typically orders of magnitude higher, than other reports. The semi-empirical stream wise velocity profile perpendicular to the surface proposed by Verhoff (1963) is in approximate agreement with these velocity profiles, which is surprising because these attached jets are three-dimensional instead of two-dimensional as evaluated by Verhoff. However, additional work is necessary to fully describe these profiles quantitatively.