The study of the rehabilitation of the upper arm is an important issue in the Rehabilitation field due to: (i) the rapid growth of the older population [1, 2] and (ii) traumatic brain injury . More specifically, the increase of the elderly at 2.4% per year and the increase in the probability of a stroke with age; in fact, this pathology is the first cause of invalidity in Europe where it occurs at a rate 60% higher than in the US. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account other degenerative pathologies, such as Parkinson’s. MIT-MANUS is the robotic system developed at the MIT Lab to rehabilitate the upper limb by means of exercises which guide or perturb the spontaneous movement of the brain-injured subject . Its disadvantages are: (i) the loss of reality, because the patient reaches a visual target with the robot handle, which does not correspond to a 3D movement, and, especially, (ii) the high cost. The study of reaching is divided in two branches: reaching towards a still or a moving target. In the first case, it is preferable to explore the working space  to investigate the possible residual movements  and to recuperate the functions of the shoulder joint. Instead, as regards the moving target, there has been much research done because significant performance improvements were obtained in pathological patients . So, the use of a ball projection machine is proposed ; it has the advantage to allow 3D trajectories but many disadvantages: (i) control only on initial impulse; (ii) not-reproducibility of trajectory; and (iii) risk in using with non-collaborative subjects. Instead, a system with magnetic coupling to move the object in 2D is proposed ; it allows the production of many trajectories and the control of dynamic parameters. The coordination between elbow and shoulder joints has been studied in the unconstrained reaching towards a still target .
A Novel Robotic System to Study the Upper Limb Strategy During Reaching of a Moving Target
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Cappa, P, Patane`, F, Zanelli, G, & Petrarca, M. "A Novel Robotic System to Study the Upper Limb Strategy During Reaching of a Moving Target." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 2nd Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference. ASME 2007 2nd Frontiers in Biomedical Devices. Irvine, California, USA. June 7–8, 2007. pp. 107-108. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/BioMed2007-38041
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